Mobile Devices and the GPUs inside

The market for portable devices (mobile devices that we can carry including notebooks) continues to soar in spite of economic difficulties and general uncertainty. Although personal devices are not necessarily replacing the PC, they are outselling the PC. All of these devices have a graphics processor (GPU) integrated in the device’s system on a chip (SoC) application processor.

JPR has just released a new market study, Mobile Devices and the GPUs Inside, and found that Qualcomm has over 42% of the total market for personal mobile devices, as illustrated in Figure 1.

Except for the four propriety (vertically integrated) suppliers, of the more than four dozen SoC suppliers, characterized as “Others” in Figure 1, Imagination Technologies is the overwhelmingly largest supplier of GPU IP. However, ARM and Vivante have shown tremendous growth year to year. (see table 1).

Other SoC suppliers that buy GPU IP are Allwiner, Freescale, Huawei, MediaTek, Rockchip, Wonder Media/VIA and others. These companies have participated in the feature phone market, and some of them have recently entered the smartphone, tablet, and handheld game machine segment.

One area that is fueling the growth of portable SoCs is the exploding tablet market in China, which is contributing significantly to the astounding growth that ARM and Vivante are experiencing. As a result of this tablet surge in China, dramatic changes are expected during the next 12 months. Last year Apple and Samsung introduced 7-inch tablets. This year, Microsoft brought out its Surface pro2 tablet, and Amazon introduced its 7-inhc tablet. The question is will the larger “phablet” phones obsolete 7-inch tablets?.

The market for SoCs with GPUs grew 32% from the first half of 2013 to the first half of 2014, with market shifts occurring as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Market share changes for portable devices from 1H’13 to 1H’14

As a result of the turbulence in the market, we expect market shares to shift dramatically through 2015.

There is also market consolidation. In 2013 there were over four dozen semiconductor suppliers  producing application processors, today there are a little over three dozen. All of those companies fall into one of two categories: vertically integrated, or IP buyers. AMD, Intel, Nvidia, and Qualcomm are the vertically integrated companies with their own GPU and CPU designs; all of the other companies buy GPU IP from one of four IP suppliers (ARM, DMP, Imagination Technologies, or Vivante). The exceptions to this tidy categorization are Samsung, which has an internal GPU design as well as purchasing IP from ARM and Imagination Technologies.

The leading high-volume suppliers of application processors (i.e., SoCs) are Apple, Qualcomm, Samsung, and MediaTek. ARM supplies GPU IP for some of Samsung’s mobile phones, while Imagination Technologies’ GPU IP is used in Apple, MediaTek, and some of Samsung’s mobile phones and tablets.

The upcoming SoC suppliers with impressive design wins to their credit are Intel (proprietary GPU) and Nvidia (proprietary GPU). Qualcomm however, is the giant in the industry.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... ii
Table of Figures ...................................................................................................................... vii
Table of Tables .......................................................................................................................... x

Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 11

  • Market slowdown ..................................................................................................................... 11
  • Larger screens need more GPU power .................................................................................... 11
  • Tablets as gifts ......................................................................................................................... 12
  • Market share shifts ................................................................................................................... 12
  • Superphones challenge small tablets ....................................................................................... 12
  • Mobile GPUs performance ...................................................................................................... 12

Definitions & Methodology ........................................................................................... 12

  • Definitions ................................................................................................................................... 12
  • Methodology ................................................................................................................................ 14
  • Primary research for this study ................................................................................................ 14
  • Secondary Research for This Study ......................................................................................... 14

Introduction ................................................................................................................... 15

  • Scope of the Study ....................................................................................................................... 15
  • Market Opportunities .................................................................................................... 16
  • Platforms ...................................................................................................................................... 17
  • Semiconductors ............................................................................................................................ 18
  • SoC Suppliers ........................................................................................................................... 18
  • Integrated SoC suppliers ...................................................................................................... 18
  • Other SoC suppliers ............................................................................................................. 19
  • IP suppliers........................................................................................................................... 19
  • How Many GPUs? ....................................................................................................................... 19

Market Shares ................................................................................................................ 22

  • Personal Platform ......................................................................................................................... 23
  • Integrated SoC Suppliers to Personal Platforms ...................................................................... 23
  • Others ....................................................................................................................................... 24
  • GPU IP ..................................................................................................................................... 25
  • GPUs in Mobile Devices in the Near Future ............................................................................... 27
  • Modeling from the PC ............................................................................................................. 28
  • Scalability and R&D Investment ............................................................................................. 29
  • Development Cycle .................................................................................................................. 29
  • Qualcomm, ........................................................................................................................... 29
  • Intel ...................................................................................................................................... 30
  • Nvidia ................................................................................................................................... 30
  • ARM, ................................................................................................................................... 30
  • Imagination Technologies .................................................................................................... 30
  • Vivante ................................................................................................................................. 30
  • Licensing .................................................................................................................................. 30
  • Performance Issues, Trends, and Opportunities....................................................................... 31

GPU Suppliers ............................................................................................................... 31

  • Commercial GPU Architectures .................................................................................................. 31
  • SoC Suppliers .............................................................................................................................. 32
  • Integrated SoC suppliers .......................................................................................................... 32
  • IP Suppliers .............................................................................................................................. 32
  • Integrated SoC Suppliers ............................................................................................................. 32
  • AMD ........................................................................................................................................ 33
  • AMD Mullins processor ...................................................................................................... 36
  • AMD Beema processor ........................................................................................................ 37
  • AMD’s GPU ........................................................................................................................ 38
  • AMD’s ISP........................................................................................................................... 39
  • AMD’s DSP ......................................................................................................................... 39
  • AMD’s video ....................................................................................................................... 40
  • Discovery tablet ................................................................................................................... 42
  • Project Skybridge ................................................................................................................. 43
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 43
  • AMD SWOT ........................................................................................................................ 44
  • Strengths .............................................................................................................................. 44
  • Weakness ............................................................................................................................. 44
  • Opportunities........................................................................................................................ 44
  • Threats.................................................................................................................................. 44
  • Apple ........................................................................................................................................ 44
  • Apple A6 processor.............................................................................................................. 45
  • Apple A7 processor.............................................................................................................. 46
  • Apple A8 processor.............................................................................................................. 47
  • Apple’s GPU ........................................................................................................................ 48
  • Apple ISP ............................................................................................................................. 48
  • Apple DSP ........................................................................................................................... 48
  • Apple video .......................................................................................................................... 48
  • Apple OS .............................................................................................................................. 49
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 49
  • Apple SWOT ....................................................................................................................... 49
  • Strengths .............................................................................................................................. 49
  • Weakness ............................................................................................................................. 49
  • Opportunities........................................................................................................................ 50
  • Threats.................................................................................................................................. 50
  • Intel .......................................................................................................................................... 50
  • Broadwell Core M processor ............................................................................................... 54
  • SoFIA ................................................................................................................................... 55
  • Intel’s GPU .......................................................................................................................... 55
  • Intel’s ISP............................................................................................................................. 56
  • Intel’s DSP ........................................................................................................................... 57
  • Intel’s video ......................................................................................................................... 57
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 58
  • Intel SWOT .......................................................................................................................... 58
  • Strengths .............................................................................................................................. 58
  • Weakness ............................................................................................................................. 58
  • Opportunities........................................................................................................................ 58
  • Threats.................................................................................................................................. 58
  • Nvidia ....................................................................................................................................... 58
  • Tegra introduced .................................................................................................................. 59
  • The roadmaps ....................................................................................................................... 59
  • Nvidia’s Tegra K1................................................................................................................ 63
  • Nvidia’s Tegra K1 CPU ....................................................................................................... 64
  • Nvidia’s GPU ....................................................................................................................... 65
  • Nvidia’s ISP ......................................................................................................................... 68
  • Nvidia’s Chimera 2 .............................................................................................................. 69
  • Nvidia’s DSP ....................................................................................................................... 71
  • Nvidia’s Video ..................................................................................................................... 71
  • Tegra in Google project Tango ............................................................................................ 71
  • Nvidia's Denver .................................................................................................................... 72
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 75
  • Intel SWOT .......................................................................................................................... 75
  • Strengths .............................................................................................................................. 75
  • Weakness ............................................................................................................................. 75
  • Opportunities........................................................................................................................ 75
  • Threats.................................................................................................................................. 76
  • Qualcomm ................................................................................................................................ 76
  • In-house development .......................................................................................................... 78
  • Snapdragon GPU ................................................................................................................. 82
  • Snapdragon Display Engine ................................................................................................. 83
  • Snapdragon ISP .................................................................................................................... 84
  • Snapdragon DSP .................................................................................................................. 84
  • Snapdragon Video ................................................................................................................ 85
  • Snapdragon 200 series ......................................................................................................... 86
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 86
  • Qualcomm SWOT ............................................................................................................... 87
  • Strengths .............................................................................................................................. 87
  • Weakness ............................................................................................................................. 87
  • Opportunities........................................................................................................................ 87
  • Threats.................................................................................................................................. 87
  • SoCs, nonproprietary ................................................................................................................... 87
  • MediaTek ................................................................................................................................. 88
  • Samsung Electronics ................................................................................................................ 92
  • Via Technologies WonderMedia ............................................................................................. 93
  • VTI’s ISP ............................................................................................................................. 95
  • VTI HDR ............................................................................................................................. 95
  • Reference design .................................................................................................................. 96
  • Summary .............................................................................................................................. 96
  • Chinese Suppliers ..................................................................................................................... 97
  • Actions Semiconductor ........................................................................................................ 97
  • Allwinner ............................................................................................................................. 98
  • HiSilicon .............................................................................................................................. 99
  • Rockchip .............................................................................................................................. 99
  • Spreadtrum ......................................................................................................................... 101
  • Other SoC suppliers ................................................................................................................... 102
  • Broadcom ............................................................................................................................... 103
  • Marvell ................................................................................................................................... 103
  • Motorola ................................................................................................................................. 105
  • STMicroelectronics ................................................................................................................ 106
  • Texas Instruments .................................................................................................................. 106
  • IP Suppliers ................................................................................................................................ 106
  • ARM ...................................................................................................................................... 107
  • ARM’s GPUs ..................................................................................................................... 107
  • Mali graphics IP core shipments are on course to be more than 600 million units in
  • 2014.ARM’s ISP ................................................................................................................ 113
  • ARM’s DSP ....................................................................................................................... 114
  • ARM’s video ...................................................................................................................... 114
  • Summary ............................................................................................................................ 116
  • ARM SWOT ...................................................................................................................... 118
  • Strengths ............................................................................................................................ 118
  • Weakness ........................................................................................................................... 118
  • Opportunities...................................................................................................................... 118
  • Threats................................................................................................................................ 118
  • DMP ....................................................................................................................................... 118
  • Summary ............................................................................................................................ 121
  • Imagination Technologies ...................................................................................................... 121
  • Imagination’s GPU - PowerVR ......................................................................................... 122
  • PowerVR Series7, .........................................................................................................................128
  • 1.1.1.1.1 Imagination Technologies’ ray tracing.......................................................................130
  • Ray tracing and GPU functions ......................................................................................... 133
  • Imagination Technologies’ video – PowerVR VPUs ........................................................ 135
  • Imagination Technologies’ ISP –PowerVR Raptor ........................................................... 137
  • MIPS, Imagination’s CPU ................................................................................................. 140
  • Imagination Technologies’ DSP ........................................................................................ 142
  • Imagination’s SoC platform ............................................................................................... 143
  • Summary ............................................................................................................................ 143
  • Imagination SWOT ............................................................................................................ 144
  • Strengths ............................................................................................................................ 144
  • Weakness ........................................................................................................................... 144
  • Opportunities...................................................................................................................... 144
  • Threats................................................................................................................................ 144
  • Nvidia’s “Core” business ....................................................................................................... 144
  • Nvidia’s move into the IP core market .............................................................................. 145
  • Leveraging Investment....................................................................................................... 145
  • Siliconarts ray tracing processor ............................................................................................ 146
  • Results ................................................................................................................................ 150
  • Roadmap ............................................................................................................................ 153
  • Synopsys ................................................................................................................................ 154
  • Takumi ................................................................................................................................... 154
  • Vivante ................................................................................................................................... 155
  • Vivante SWOT ....................................................................................................................... 158
  • Strengths ............................................................................................................................ 158
  • Weakness ........................................................................................................................... 158
  • Opportunities...................................................................................................................... 158
  • Threats................................................................................................................................ 158

Summary ...................................................................................................................... 159
Appendix ...................................................................................................................... 160

  • SAM, TAM, and PAM .............................................................................................................. 160
  • The impact of the API ................................................................................................................ 161
  • Khronos .................................................................................................................................. 162
  • Who is/was first?................................................................................................................ 163
  • APIs and Google .................................................................................................................... 164

Operating Systems ...................................................................................................... 165

  • Android ...................................................................................................................................... 166
  • Apple .......................................................................................................................................... 166
  • Windows .................................................................................................................................... 166
  • Other OSs ................................................................................................................................... 167
  • Motivations for Using an Alternative OS .............................................................................. 167
  • China OS and HTC ................................................................................................................ 168
  • Mozilla Firefox Mobile Operating System ............................................................................ 168
  • Baidu ...................................................................................................................................... 169
  • Sailfish ................................................................................................................................... 169
  • Tizen ...................................................................................................................................... 169
  • Ubuntu .................................................................................................................................... 169
  • Which Tablet OS? .................................................................................................................. 170
  • Best of both worlds ............................................................................................................ 170
  • APIs’ Current and Future Developments and Needs ................................................................. 170
  • What is HTML5? ....................................................................................................................... 171
  • WebGL ....................................................................................................................................... 171
  • Why Has This Come Up? ...................................................................................................... 172
  • Confusion in the Industry as We Start this Hardening Process ............................................. 173
  • What Do We Think? .............................................................................................................. 174
  • Codec Developments ................................................................................................................. 175
  • Heterogeneous Processing and GP-Compute ............................................................................ 176
  • OpenCL .................................................................................................................................. 176
  • Renderscript ........................................................................................................................... 176
  • Nvidia’s CUDA ..................................................................................................................... 176
  • High-Quality Cinema-like Images ......................................................................................... 177
  • Computational Photography .................................................................................................. 178
  • Computer Vision .................................................................................................................... 181

Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 182
Index ............................................................................................................................. 183

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Total potential available market for embedded GPUs 2011 to 2018 (Source: JPR) ........ 11
Figure 2: Mobile devices is a broad term......................................................................................... 13
Figure 3: Comparison of shipments of tablets vs. portable PCs ...................................................... 17
Figure 4: Total GPUs shipped in various platforms over time (Source: JPR) ................................. 19
Figure 5: Total GPUs used in personal devices (Source: JPR) ........................................................ 21
Figure 6: Total Embedded GPUs, all platforms (Source: JPR) ....................................................... 22
Figure 7: SoC Personal platform suppliers who design and manufacture their own SoCs (Source:
JPR) .................................................................................................................................................. 23
Figure 8: Total Personal Platforms SoC Suppliers .......................................................................... 24
Figure 9: History of SoC suppliers .................................................................................................. 25
Figure 10: GPU IP suppliers to personal platforms (Source: JPR) .................................................. 26
Figure 11: Market share of Personal systems SoC suppliers for 1h 2013 ....................................... 27
Figure 12: AMD’s 2013-2014 Mobility Roadmap (Source: AMD) ................................................ 35
Figure 13: AMD’s Mullins chip layout (Source AMD) .................................................................. 37
Figure 14: AMD’s Graphics Core Next GPU architecture in their APUs (Source AMD) .............. 39
Figure 15: AMD uses a Tensilica DSP for their audio engine (Source AMD) ............................... 40
Figure 16: AMD’s video engine (Source AMD) ............................................................................. 41
Figure 17: AMD’s discovery reference tablet (Source AMD) ........................................................ 42
Figure 18: Gaming on an AMD tablet (Source AMD) .................................................................... 43
Figure 19: The A6 uses three Imagination Technologies GPUs (Source Chipworks) .................... 45
Figure 20: The Apple A7 has four GPU cores and a 64-bit CPU (source Ifixit) ............................. 47
Figure 21: Silvermont introduces a new architecture, while Airmont will take that architecture and
bring it down to 14 nm in 2014 (Source: Intel) ............................................................................... 52
Figure 22: Intel’s smartphone roadmap (Source: Intel) ................................................................... 53
Figure 23: Intel’s ultra-thin 7.2mm (0.28 in) Llama Mountain reference design tablet/2-in-1 using
Intel's Core M' processor.................................................................................................................. 54
Figure 24: Intel’s Broadwell integrated graphics block diagram (Source: Intel) ............................ 56

Figure 25: Nvidia’s February 2011 roadmap (Source: Nvidia) ....................................................... 61
Figure 26: Nvidia’s 2013 Tegra roadmap (Source: Nvidia) ............................................................ 62
Figure 27: Tegra K1 high-level block diagram (Source: Nvidia) .................................................... 64
Figure 28: Tegra K1's Cortex A-15 performance/Watt, compared to Tegra 4's Cortex A-15
(Source: Nvidia) ............................................................................................................................... 65
Figure 29: Tegra K1 uses Kepler, unifying Nvidia's GPU lines (Source: Nvidia) .......................... 66
Figure 30: Nvidia-run GFXBench 3.0 results for Tegra K1, versus 2013 competition (Source:
Nvidia) ............................................................................................................................................. 68
Figure 31: Chimera 2 = CPU+GPU+dual ISPs+CSI, creating a high-performance handheld imageprocessing
engine (Source: Nvidia) ................................................................................................. 69
Figure 32: Chimera 2 Camera Sensor Interface (CSI) (Source: Nvidia) ......................................... 70
Figure 33: Chimera 2 computational photography architecture (Source: Nvidia) .......................... 71
Figure 34: Epic’s faceless ARM 64-bit Google L OS based Unreal 4 game engine demo for
mobile (Epic). .................................................................................................................................. 72
Figure 35: Compared to a 32-bit Tegra K1 and other processors, the Tegra K1-64 performs pretty
well (Source Nvidia) ........................................................................................................................ 73
Figure 36: Nvidia’s Denver CPU core, block diagram (Source Nvidia) ......................................... 74
Figure 37: Adreno GPU performance (Source: Qualcomm) ........................................................... 78
Figure 38: Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 SoC (Source: Qualcomm) ................................................. 80
Figure 39: Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 810 (Source Qualcomm) ....................................................... 81
Figure 40 Adreno 420 Block Diagram (Source: Qualcomm) .......................................................... 83
Figure 41: Qualcomm’s ISP resolution across product ranges (Source Qualcomm) ...................... 84
Figure 42: Qualcomm’s Snapdragon Hexagon DSP (Source Qualcomm) ...................................... 85
Figure 43: MediaTek MT6595 octa-core SoC (Source MediaTek) ................................................. 89
Figure 44: VTI’s WonderMedia WM8980 SoC (Source3: VTI) ..................................................... 94
Figure 45: Apical’s ISP IP block (Source Apical) ........................................................................... 95
Figure 46: Apical’s Display management IP block (Source Apical) ............................................... 96
Figure 47: Rockchip RK3188 floor plan showing some of the major functional blocks .............. 100
Figure 48: Marvell’s Baseband SoC (Source Marvell) .................................................................. 104
Figure 49: Marvell’s Armada 1500 PRO Quad-core 4K Ultra HD SoC targets at Smart TVs and
STBs (Source: Marvell) ................................................................................................................. 105
Figure 50: ARM’s Mali GPU roadmap (Source: ARM) .............................................................. 108
Figure 51: ARM’s Mali T658 IP GPU (Source ARM).................................................................. 109
Figure 52: ARM’s High-end Mali GPU roadmap (Source ARM) ................................................ 110
Figure 53: ARM’s Mali T760 IP GPU (Source ARM).................................................................. 111
Figure 54: ARM’s Mali market penetration (Source ARM) ......................................................... 111
Figure 55: ARM’s Mali T860 16-core GPU (source ARM) .......................................................... 113
Figure 56: ARM’s ISP solution using GPU-compute (Source ARM) ........................................... 114
Figure 57: ARM’s Mali V500 video engine (Source ARM) ......................................................... 115
Figure 58: The Mali-V550, the Mali-DP550, and the software stack ........................................... 116
Figure 59: ARM sees volume of shipments going up as the size of the chips comes down (Source:
ARM) ............................................................................................................................................. 117
Figure 60: DMP’s expanded product line (Source: DMP .............................................................. 119
Figure 61: DMP IP roadmap (Source: DMP) ................................................................................ 120

Figure 62: Imagination Technologies’ GPU roadmap (Source: Imagination Technologies) ........ 123
Figure 63: Imagination Technologies’ PowerVR Rouge series GPU (Source: Imagination
Technologies) ................................................................................................................................. 124
Figure 64: Imagination Technologies product map (Source: Imagination Technologies) ............ 126
Figure 65: Power vs. performance (source: Imagination Technologies) ....................................... 127
Figure 66: Imagination Technologies partner’s shipments since 1999 (source: Imagination
Technologies) ................................................................................................................................. 128
Figure 67: Imagination thinks it can challenge last gen consoles and current entry-level PCs
(Imagination Technologies) ........................................................................................................... 129
Figure 68: Imagination’s Visualizer basic intersection testing ray tracing engine ........................ 132
Figure 69: PowerVR GR6500 Block Diagram .............................................................................. 134
Figure 70: Imagination Technologies’ video decode IP blocks (Source Imagination Technologies)
........................................................................................................................................................ 136
Figure 71: Imagination Technologies’ video encode IP blocks (Source Imagination Technologies)
........................................................................................................................................................ 136
Figure 72: ‘Raptor’ completes the PowerVR Multimedia portfolio (source: Imagination
Technologies) ................................................................................................................................. 138
Figure 73: Imagination Technologies acquisition of MIPS was a complex deal to keep patents out
the hands of trolls ........................................................................................................................... 141
Figure 74: Imagination’s latest MIPS IP cores based on Imagination’s aggressive roadmap
(source: Imagination Technologies) .............................................................................................. 142
Figure 75: Imagination Technologies’ IP SoC (Source Imagination Technologies) ..................... 143
Figure 76: The scalability of Nvidia’s Kepler core (Source: Nvidia) ............................................ 146
Figure 77: Basic architecture of Siliconarts RayCore processor (Siliconarts) .............................. 147
Figure 78: The overall architecture of the ray-tracing unit (Siliconarts ........................................ 149
Figure 79: Three static test scenes for Whitted ray tracing : Kitchen, Room with moving light, and
Living room rendered at interactive frame rates on FPGA prototype (Siliconarts) ...................... 150
Figure 80: Sample images from two static test scenes: Conference (courtesy of Anat Grynberg and
Greg Ward) and Sibenik (courtesy of Marko Dabrovic). These images were rendered with ambient
occlusion. ....................................................................................................................................... 151
Figure 81: FPGA performance results for Whitted ray tracing at 800x480 (Siliconarts) .............. 151
Figure 82: FPGA performance results for Whitted ray tracing at 1600x960 (Siliconarts) ............ 152
Figure 83 Takumi product map (Source: Takumi) ........................................................................ 155
Figure 84: The market growth of the personal mobile device is incredible .................................. 159
Figure 85: Conceptualization of PAM/TAM/SAM and SOM (Courtesy RAK Associates) ......... 161
Figure 86: Khronos’ OpenGL ES 3.1 pipeline (Source: Khronos) ................................................ 163
Figure 87: A new API every five years ......................................................................................... 171
Figure 88: Video codec compression efficiency has increased only threefold .............................. 175
Figure 89: OpenSubdiv is platform agnostic and uses OpenCL .................................................... 177
Figure 90: Augmented reality showing us stuff that’s not there .................................................... 178
Figure 91: Morton Heilig created a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and
smell back in 1956 ........................................................................................................................ 179
Figure 92: Ivan Sutherland testing an AR headset in 1968 ........................................................... 180
Figure 93: A typical computer vision algorithm pipeline .............................................................. 182

Table of Tables

Table 1: Other SoC suppliers ........................................................................................................... 25
Table 2: Design origin of processors in SoC by integrated suppliers .............................................. 33
Table 3: AMD’s A/E-Series Mullins APUs..................................................................................... 37
Table 4: AMD’s A/E-Series Beema APUs ...................................................................................... 38
Table 5: AMD’s video coding engine (VCE) .................................................................................. 41
Table 6: AMD’s unified video decoder (UVD) ............................................................................... 42
Table 7: Apple’s SoCs ..................................................................................................................... 45
Table 8: Tegra K1's top-level specs (Source: Nvidia) ..................................................................... 63
Table 9: Nvidia compares Tegra K1's raw specs to previous generation consoles (Source: Nvidia)
.......................................................................................................................................................... 67
Table 10: Qualcomm Snapdragon 600 series SoCs ......................................................................... 79
Table 11: Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 series SoCs ......................................................................... 81
Table 12: MediaTek’s smartphone SoCs ......................................................................................... 90
Table 13: MediaTek’s tablet SoCs ................................................................................................... 91
Table 14: Samsung’s SoCs .............................................................................................................. 93
Table 15: VTI WonderMedia SoCs (Source: Wikipedia) ................................................................ 94
Table 16: Actions Semiconductor’s SoCs ....................................................................................... 97
Table 17: Allwinner Technologies SoCs ......................................................................................... 98
Table 18: HiSilion’s SoCs ............................................................................................................... 99
Table 19: Rockchip’s SoCs ............................................................................................................ 100
Table 20: Spreadtrum’ s 2G smartphone SoCs .............................................................................. 101
Table 21: Spreadtrum’ s 3G smartphone SoCs .............................................................................. 101
Table 22: Spreadtrum’ s 3G tablet SoCs ........................................................................................ 101
Table 23: Smaller SoC suppliers .................................................................................................... 103
Table 24: ARM’s PAM (Source: ARM) ........................................................................................ 117
Table 25: Imagination Technologies’ Rogue processor features (Source: Imagination
Technologies) ................................................................................................................................. 125
Table 26: Comparison of Series 6XT to series 7XT ...................................................................... 129
Table 27: Vivante’s GPU product line ........................................................................................... 156